Protameen Chemicals, Manufacturer and Distributor of Specialty Materials for the Personal Care Industry.

CTFA NAME: Ethoxydiglycol (and) PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate (and) Salicylic Acid (and) Alpha Hydroxylauric Acid (and) PPG-12/SMDI Copolymer (and) Glycereth-7

This proprietary blend combines an alpha hydroxy acid (Alpha Hydroxylauric Acid) with a beta hydroxy acid (Salicylic Acid) in a vehicle that contains a penetration enhancer (Ethoxydiglycol) and acid-stable moisturizers (PEG-7 Glyceryl Cocoate and Glycereth-7) and a polymer (PPG-12/SMDI Copolymer).

The polymer ensures increased residence time of the actives in the upper layers of the stratum corneum.

The other base ingredients ensure that the hydroxy acids penetrate into all regions of the stratum corneum
maximizing skin exfoliation and also help moisturize the skin.

Protaderm HA combines the different cellular renewal properties of an alpha-hydroxy acid and a beta hydroxy acid. It has been reported that alpha hydroxy acids will initially increase the amount of skin cells shed daily (as expected).

Overtime, the turnover rate decreases. Beta hydroxy acids (i.e., Salicylic Acid) will increase skin cell shedding initially and continue to do so long term. The turnover rate does not decrease as opposed to the alpha hydroxy acids.

Also, testing has indicated that test subjects adapt to the effects of alpha hydroxy acids by renormalizing increased exfoliation rates but for salicylic acid, exfoliation remains elevated for extended periods of time.1

By combining an alpha and beta hydroxy acid in a penetrating, moisturizing base, Protaderm HA maximizes the short and long term exfoliating rates of each acid, respectively.

 Protaderm HA provides the following benefits to the skin:

* increases the natural exfoliating rate of epidermal skin by weakening the bonds that hold cells together
reduces rough,scaly skin leaving skin smoother and softer
increases the moisture binding properties of skin
reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles
reduces the appearance of liver or age spots
reverses the effects of sun damage to skin* acts as a penetration enhancer for other active ingredients

 Formulation Considerations:

* When used at 10% in finished formulations, the level of Salicylic Acid is 2% and Alpha Hydroxylauric Acid is 1%.
* The greatest efficacy seems to be at pH 2.5 - 5.0. A rule of thumb is the lower the pH, the greater the efficacy.
* The free acid form of these hydroxy acids gives maximum efficacy. Care should be taken not to add reactive basic ingredients that would convert these acids to their less effective salt forms.
* Non-ionic emulsifying systems work the best in keeping both acids stable.
*Avoid excipients which may be potentially irritating since a penetration enhancer is contained in this hydroxy acid complex.
1. WP Smith, Hydroxy Acids and Skin Aging, Soap Cosmetics Chemical Specialties, 69(9) 54-58, (1993)